The Online Library of Liberty

The aim of the OLL is to provide thousands of titles about individual liberty, limited constitutional government, and the free market, free of charge to the public, for educational purposes.

The Online Library of Liberty makes available at no charge to the public outstanding resources for teaching & learning about individual liberty. It has won a number of international awards and recognition from such bodies as the Library of Congress (we were selected for the Minerva Archiving Project), the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the British Arts & Humanities Research Council.

The works of hundreds of authors from ancient Sumeria to the present are represented. They are organized by author, historical period, and schools of thought. The latter includes the French Enlightenment, the Founding Fathers, 19th century natural rights theorists, the Austrian School of Economics, and many others.

Liberty Matters

Every two months the OLL hosts an online forum for scholars to discuss the significance of some of the key works in the OLL collection. A lead article on the topic is posted, which is followed by three or more response essays and then open debate. Topics covered so far include Eric Mack on “John Locke on Property,” Geoffrey Brennan on “James Buchanan: An Assessment,” and Roderick Long on “Gustave de Molinari’s Legacy for Liberty.”

Visit the Online Library of Liberty

Recent Posts

Here are the 10 latest posts from OLL.

OLL November 13, 2018

Universal Economics (Armen A. Alchian)

Universal Economics. Edited by Jerry L. Jordan. Foreword by William R. Allen (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2018).

OLL November 13, 2018

Universal Economics (Armen A. Alchian)

Universal Economics. Edited by Jerry L. Jordan. Foreword by William R. Allen (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 2018).

OLL November 11, 2018

Strictures upon the Declaration of the Congress at Philadelphia (1776) (Thomas Hutchinson)

strictures.upon.declarationStrictures upon the Declaration of the Congress at Philadelphia in a Letter to a Noble Lord, &c. (London, 1776)

OLL November 11, 2018

Strictures upon the Declaration of the Congress at Philadelphia (1776) (Thomas Hutchinson)

Strictures upon the Declaration of the Congress at Philadelphia in a Letter to a Noble Lord, &c. (London, 1776)

OLL August 1, 2018

Anti-Slavery Tracts. Second Series, nos. 1-25 (1860-62) (David M. Hart)

Anti-Slavery Tracts. Second Series, nos. 1-25 (New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1860-62).

OLL August 1, 2018

Anti-Slavery Tracts. Second Series, nos. 1-25 (1860-62) (David M. Hart)

Anti-Slavery Tracts. Second Series, nos. 1-25 (New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1860-62).

OLL August 1, 2018

Anti-Slavery Tracts. First Series, Nos. 1-20 (1855-56) (David M. Hart)

AntiSlaveryTractsAnti-Slavery Tracts. First Series, Nos. 1-20 (New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1855-56).

OLL August 1, 2018

Anti-Slavery Tracts. First Series, Nos. 1-20 (1855-56) (David M. Hart)

Anti-Slavery Tracts. First Series, Nos. 1-20 (New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1855-56).

OLL July 5, 2018

Zum Abschluss des Marxschen Systems (Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk)

Staatswissenschaftliche Arbeiten. Festgaben für Karl Knies zur fünfundsiebzigsten Wiederkehr seines Geburtstages in dankbaren Vehehring. Otto v. Boenigk (Hrsg.) (Berlin: O. Haering, 1896).

OLL July 5, 2018

Zum Abschluss des Marxschen Systems (Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk)

Staatswissenschaftliche Arbeiten. Festgaben für Karl Knies zur fünfundsiebzigsten Wiederkehr seines Geburtstages in dankbaren Vehehring. Otto v. Boenigk (Hrsg.) (Berlin: O. Haering, 1896).

Here are the 10 latest posts from OLL | Liberty Matters.

OLL | Liberty Matters November 13, 2018

Alberto Mingardi, “Liberty and Cynicism: Was Vilfredo Pareto a Liberal?” (November, 2018)

Alberto Mingardi, an assistant professor of the history of political thought at IULM University in Milan, Italy and director general of the free-market think tank Istituto Bruno Leoni, asks if Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) should belong in the history of classical liberalism? His answer is that Pareto’s drastic political realism—his ambition to look at politics for what it is—is not incompatible with a classical-liberal worldview, but it is incompatible with a classical-liberal program. He is joined in this discussion by Giandomenica Becchio, an assistant professor at the University of Torino; Rosolino Candela, a Senior Fellow with the F. A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University; and Richard E. Wagner is Holbert Harris Professor of Economics at George Mason University.

OLL | Liberty Matters November 1, 2018

Alberto Mingardi, “Liberty and Cynicism: Was Vilfredo Pareto a Liberal?” (November, 2018)

Liberty MattersAlberto Mingardi, an assistant professor of the history of political thought at IULM University in Milan, Italy and director general of the free-market think tank Istituto Bruno Leoni, asks if Vilfredo Pareto (1848-1923) should belong in the history of classical liberalism? His answer is that Pareto’s drastic political realism—his ambition to look at politics for what it is—is not incompatible with a classical-liberal worldview, but it is incompatible with a classical-liberal program. He is joined in this discussion by Giandomenica Becchio, an assistant professor at the University of Torino; Rosolino Candela, a Senior Fellow with the F. A. Hayek Program for Advanced Study in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University; and Richard E. Wagner is Holbert Harris Professor of Economics at George Mason University.

OLL | Liberty Matters October 31, 2018

Virgil Storr, "Marx and the Morality of Capitalism" (October, 2018)

This year is the bicentennial of the birth of Karl Marx (1818-1883) and in this month's Liberty Matters online discussion we will explore the strengths and weaknesses of Marx's political, economic, and social thought. The lead essay is by Virgil Storr, senior research fellow at the Mercatus Center and a professor of economics at George Mason University, where he explores Marx's "moral critique of capitalism" which he argues underlies his economic and social critiques of capitalism. He is joined in this discussion by Pete Boettke, Professor of Economics and Philosophy at George Mason University; Steve Horwitz, Distinguished Professor of Free Enterprise in the department of economics at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana; David Prychitko, professor of economics at Northern Michigan University; and David Hart, the Director of Liberty Fund's Online Library of Liberty Project.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters October 1, 2018

Virgil Storr, "Marx and the Morality of Capitalism" (October, 2018)

Liberty MattersThis year is the bicentennial of the birth of Karl Marx (1818-1883) and in this month's Liberty Matters online discussion we will explore the strengths and weaknesses of Marx's political, economic, and social thought. The lead essay is by Virgil Store, senior research fellow at the Mercatus Center and a professor of economics at George Mason University, where he explores Marx's "moral critique of capitalism" which he argues underlies his economic and social critiques of capitalism. He is joined in this discussion by Pete Boettke, Professor of Economics and Philosophy at George Mason University; Steve Horwitz, Distinguished Professor of Free Enterprise in the department of economics at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana; David Prychitko, professor of economics at Northern Michigan University; and David Hart, the Director of Liberty Fund's Online Library of Liberty Project.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters August 2, 2018

Peter Lewin, "Ludwig Lachmann – Enigmatic and Controversial Austrian Economist" (July, 2018)

This month’s Liberty Matters discusses the work of the Austrian economist Ludwig M. Lachmann (1906 - 1990). All his whole professional life Lachmann considered himself an "Austrian" economist, a soldier dedicated to fostering an appreciation of Austrian insights and to developing those insights beyond the initial contributions of Carl Menger. So Lachmann saw it as his mission to advance among the Austrians a heightened appreciation of the importance of the subjective and autonomous nature of expectations. Lachmann’s most significant contribution to economic theory was to the theory of capital. These contributions can be found in numerous articles in the 1940s, during the LSE period, culminating in his book Capital and its Structure (1956), and in various articles subsequently right up until his death, and also in his final full length work, The Market as an Economic Process (1986). Lachmann’s capital theory is a logical outgrowth of his methodological and epistemological views. In other words, it reflects his thoroughgoing subjectivism. The topic is introduced by Peter Lewin, Clinical Professor in the Jindal School of Management, University of Texas, Dallas, and is joined in the discussion by Hans Eicholz, Senior Fellow at Liberty Fund; Paul Lewis, Reader in Economics and Public Policy at King’s College London; Mario J. Rizzo, professor of economics at NYU, and Bill Tulloh is a cofounder and economist at Agoric.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters July 1, 2018

Peter Lewin, "Ludwig Lachmann – Enigmatic and Controversial Austrian Economist" (July. 2018)

Liberty MattersThis month’s Liberty Matters discusses the work of the Austrian economist Ludwig M. Lachmann (1906 - 1990). All his whole professional life Lachmann considered himself an "Austrian" economist, a soldier dedicated to fostering an appreciation of Austrian insights and to developing those insights beyond the initial contributions of Carl Menger. So Lachmann saw it as his mission to advance among the Austrians a heightened appreciation of the importance of the subjective and autonomous nature of expectations. Lachmann’s most significant contribution to economic theory was to the theory of capital. These contributions can be found in numerous articles in the 1940s, during the LSE period, culminating in his book Capital and its Structure (1956), and in various articles subsequently right up until his death, and also in his final full length work, The Market as an Economic Process (1986). Lachmann’s capital theory is a logical outgrowth of his methodological and epistemological views. In other words, it reflects his thoroughgoing subjectivism. The topic is introduced by Peter Lewin, Clinical Professor in the Jindal School of Management, University of Texas, Dallas, and is joined in the discussion by Hans Eicholz, Senior Fellow at Liberty Fund; Paul Lewis, Reader in Economics and Public Policy at King’s College London; Mario J. Rizzo, professor of economics at NYU, and Bill Tulloh is a cofounder and economist at Agoric.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters June 12, 2018

Eric Mack on "John Locke on Property" (January 2013)

"LIBERTY MATTERS"

DovePeace100.jpg

A FORUM FOR THE DISCUSSION OF MATTERS PERTAINING TO LIBERTY

LockeB200.jpg

John Locke (1632-1704)
Second Treatise of Government (1689)

Locke_OfProperty250.jpg

OLL | Liberty Matters June 12, 2018

Eric Mack on "John Locke on Property" (January 2013)

| header_amagi175.jpg |

"LIBERTY MATTERS"

| DovePeace100.jpg | | A FORUM FOR THE DISCUSSION OF MATTERS PERTAINING TO LIBERTY |

 

| JOHN LOCKE ON PROPERTY (January, 2013) | | LockeB200.jpg | Locke_OfProperty250.jpg | | John Locke (1632-1704) | Second Treatise of Government (1689) |

OLL | Liberty Matters May 30, 2018

Alan Kahan, "Limited Government, Unlimited Liberalism. Or, How Benjamin Constant was a Kantian After All" [May, 2018]

In this month's discussion Alan S. Kahan, Professor of British Civilization at the Université de Versailles/St. Quentin, argues that Benjamin Constant, like Immanuel Kant, analyzed politics from a double perspective. Kant divided his Metaphysics of Morals into what he called the "Doctrine of Right," about how human behavior affects other people, which is the business of the state, and the "Doctrine of Virtue," which relates to human beings' internal obligations, their motives and duties, which are not the state's business. In Constant this double perspective takes the form of strictly limiting the sphere in which it is legitimate for the state to act, the equivalent of Kant's doctrine of right, and of close attention to human moral and religious development, the equivalent of Kant's doctrine of virtue. For both Kant and Constant the state's sphere of action must be strictly limited. But the limits they impose on the state do not limit the scope of their commentary on the relationship between politics and religion and morals. Indeed, for Constant at least, a limited state must rest on a broad religious/moral foundation to survive. Alan Kahan is joined in the discussion by Aurelian Craiutu, professor of political science at Indiana University, Bloomington; Bryan Garsten, professor of political science and humanities at Yale University; and Jacob T. Levy, Professor of Political Theory in the department of philosophy at McGill University.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters May 1, 2018

Nicholas Capaldi, "The Place of Liberty in David Hume's Project" (January, 2018)

Nick Capaldi, the Legendre-Soulé Distinguished Chair of Business Ethics in the School of Business of Loyola University, New Orleans, outlines David Hume's ambitious "Project" with a list of 8 "theses", the last of which states that "Liberty is the Central Theme." Capaldi's gloss on this thesis is "The ultimate ontological reality is the individual human agent; there is no institution or practice that transcends the individual; the legitimacy of any practice is based on the acquiescence of individuals.  Acquiescence is not consent. There is no philosophical argument for liberty: it is the default position.  Given its unique history, England was able to preserve and elaborate this insight in large part because of its inherent disposition to distrust abstractions – this is the British Intellectual Inheritance, and Hume's philosophical practice as well as his History is the only meaningful kind of account that can be given." Capaldi is joined in this month's discussion by Daniel Klein who is professor of economics and JIN Chair at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University; Chandran Kukathas who holds the Chair of Political Theory in the Department of Government at the London School of Economics; Andrew Sabl who is Orrick Fellow and Visiting Professor in the Program on Ethics, Politics and Economics, Yale University; and Mark Yellin of Liberty Fund.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

Here are the 10 latest posts from OLL | Images of Liberty.

OLL | Images of Liberty January 16, 2018

Algernon Sidney (1622-1683) and the Thomas Hollis Library of Liberty

AlgernonSidney_Hollis_facingL300-medium AlgernonSidney_Hollis-facingR300

This is part of an ongoing series which will examine the imagery created by the English publisher Thomas Hollis (1720-1774) to embellish and advertise his reissue of classic works by 17th century republicans and radicals who were active during the English Revolution and its aftermath. He called this series his "Library of Liberty" and volumes began to appear in the 1760s and were sent to libraries and individuals in Europe and the American colonies.

OLL | Images of Liberty September 18, 2017

Encyclopedic Liberty and Industry

This illustrated essay explores some images of "liberty" and "industry" from Diderot’s Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts) (1751-1772). They have been taken from Liberty Fund’s anthology of articles, Encyclopedic Liberty: Political Articles in the Dictionary of Diderot and D'Alembert (2016) and the supplementary volumes of illustrations from the original 18th century edition.

OLL | Images of Liberty September 16, 2017

Encyclopedic Liberty and Industry

EncyclopedieThis illustrated essay explores some images of "liberty" and "industry" from Diderot’s Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts) (1751-1772). They have been taken from Liberty Fund’s anthology of articles, Encyclopedic Liberty: Political Articles in the Dictionary of Diderot and D'Alembert (2016) and the supplementary volumes of illustrations from the original 18th century edition.

OLL | Images of Liberty September 16, 2017

Encyclopedic Liberty and Industry

Mises on Gresham’s Law and Ancient Greek Silver Coins

In an Appendix to his The Theory of Money and Credit (1912) the Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) discussed the value of a silver coin issued by Gelon the King of Syracuse in 480 BC. A picture of the coin was used on the original cover of the book. Mises was interested in these coins because he believed that sound currency emerged in the ancient world as a result of the productive economic activity which went on in places such as Lydia (Turkey) and Athens. These places remained economically powerful only so long as they retained a sound currency, which he believed Athens did and the other Greek city states did not. The Appendix about this coin is included below along with the illustration.

Mises on Gresham’s Law and Ancient Greek Silver Coins

DemarateionIn an Appendix to his The Theory of Money and Credit (1912) the Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) discussed the value of a silver coin issued by Gelon the King of Syracuse in 480 BC. A picture of the coin was used on the original cover of the book. Mises was interested in these coins because he believed that sound currency emerged in the ancient world as a result of the productive economic activity which went on in places such as Lydia (Turkey) and Athens. These places remained economically powerful only so long as they retained a sound currency, which he believed Athens did and the other Greek city states did not. The Appendix about this coin is included below along with the illustration.

Austria D1 1911

OLL | Images of Liberty December 4, 2016

Ngrams and the Changing Vocabulary of Class Analysis in 19th Century Classical Liberal Thought

| | | Honoré Daumier, "The Army Hierarchy" (1850s)
[See higher resolution image] |

What are Ngrams?

According to the Wikipedia article on The Google Ngram Viewer:

The Google Ngram Viewer or Google Books Ngram Viewer is an online search engine that charts frequencies of any set of comma-delimited search strings using a yearly count of n-grams found in sources printed between 1500 and 2008 in Google's text corpora in American English, British English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, or Chinese, generated in either 2008 or 2012; there are also some specialized English-language corpora, such as English Fiction. ...

The program can search for a single word or a phrase, including misspellings or gibberish. The n-grams are matched with the text within the selected corpus, optionally using case-sensitive spelling (which compares the exact use of uppercase letters), and, if found in 40 or more books, are then plotted on a graph.

<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Ngram_Viewer>

OLL | Images of Liberty December 4, 2016

Ngrams and the Changing Vocabulary of Class Analysis in 19th Century Classical Liberal Thought

| | | Honoré Daumier, "The Army Hierarchy" (1850s)
[See higher resolution image] |

What are Ngrams?

According to the Wikipedia article on The Google Ngram Viewer:

The Google Ngram Viewer or Google Books Ngram Viewer is an online search engine that charts frequencies of any set of comma-delimited search strings using a yearly count of n-grams found in sources printed between 1500 and 2008 in Google's text corpora in American English, British English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, or Chinese, generated in either 2008 or 2012; there are also some specialized English-language corpora, such as English Fiction. ...

The program can search for a single word or a phrase, including misspellings or gibberish. The n-grams are matched with the text within the selected corpus, optionally using case-sensitive spelling (which compares the exact use of uppercase letters), and, if found in 40 or more books, are then plotted on a graph.

<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Google_Ngram_Viewer>

Art of the Levellers

Art.of.LevellersIn the course of putting together a multi-volume collection of over 240 Leveller Tracts I came across some very interesting title pages which used typography and occasionally woodcuts to add graphical force to the political and economic arguments being made by the authors. The pamphlets were published in their thousands during the 1640s and 1650s - the London bookseller George Thomason collected 23,000 of them over a period of twenty years and these comprise a major collection which is held by the British Library.

Art of the Levellers

In the course of putting together a multi-volume collection of over 240 Leveller Tracts I came across some very interesting title pages which used typography and occasionally woodcuts to add graphical force to the political and economic arguments being made by the authors. The pamphlets were published in their thousands during the 1640s and 1650s - the London bookseller George Thomason collected 23,000 of them over a period of twenty years and these comprise a major collection which is held by the British Library.

Here are the 10 latest posts from OLL | Quotations.

OLL | Quotations October 3, 2018

Mises states that it is the division of labor which makes man truly “social” or “communal” (1922)

Mises states that it is the division of labor which makes man truly “social” or “communal” (1922)

OLL | Quotations October 3, 2018

Mises states that it is the division of labor which makes man truly “social” or “communal” (1922)

Ludwig von Mises

OLL | Quotations September 30, 2018

Voltaire on the Benefits which Trade and Economic Abundance bring to People living in the Present Age (1736)

Voltaire on the Benefits which Trade and Economic Abundance bring to People living in the Present Age (1736)

OLL | Quotations August 13, 2018

Molinari calls the idea of using tariffs to promote a nation’s economy “a monstrosity” (1852)

Molinari calls the idea of using tariffs to promote a nation’s economy “a monstrosity” (1852)

OLL | Quotations August 13, 2018

Molinari calls the idea of using tariffs to promote a nation’s economy “a monstrosity” (1852)

Molinari

OLL | Quotations June 11, 2018

Robert Molesworth on the benefits of open borders and free immigration (1705)

Robert Molesworth on the benefits of open borders and free immigration (1705)

OLL | Quotations June 11, 2018

Robert Molesworth on the benefits of open borders and free immigration (1705)

RobertMolesworth

OLL | Quotations March 27, 2018

Adam Smith thinks many candidates for high political office act as if they are above the law (1759)

Adam Smith thinks many candidates for high political office act as if they are above the law (1759)

OLL | Quotations March 27, 2018

Adam Smith thinks many candidates for high political office act as if they are above the law (1759)

Adam Smith

OLL | Quotations March 16, 2018

Frédéric Bastiat's theory of plunder (1850)

Bastiat

Here are the 10 latest posts from OLL | Liberty Fund Books.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books November 13, 2018

Universal Economics (Armen A. Alchian)

Universal.EconomicsUniversal Economics shows the critical importance of property rights to the existence and success of market economies. The authors explain the interconnection between goods prices and productive-asset prices and how market-determined interest rates bring about the allocation of resources toward the satisfaction of consumption demands versus saving/investment priorities. They show how the crucial role of prices in a market economy cannot be well understood without a firm grasp of the role of money in the modern world. The Alchian and Allen application of information and search-cost analysis to the subject of money, price determination, and inflation is unique in the teaching of economic principles.

The Crisis: A British Defense of American Rights, 1775–1776 (Neil L. York)

The Crisis was a London weekly published between January 1775 and October 1776. It was the longest-running weekly pamphlet series printed in the British Atlantic world during those years, and it used unusually bold, pithy language. Neither the longevity of the effort nor the colorful language employed would be reason enough to collect and print all ninety-two issues under one cover in a modern edition. The Crisis lays claim to our attention because of its place in the rise of freedom of the press, its self-conscious attempt to create a transatlantic community of protest, and its targeting of the king as the source of political problems—but without attacking the institution of monarchy itself.

The Crisis was condemned informally by leaders in the British government, and then formally in court, as a dangerous example of seditious libel. Copies of it were publicly burned, and yet publication continued uninterrupted. The men behind The Crisis were determined to interest the British public in American affairs and were no doubt pleased when various issues were reprinted in the colonies. They played on shared beliefs and shared fears: beliefs in the existence of fundamental rights, rights beyond the reach of any government, and the fear that loss of those rights in Britain’s American colonies could lead to their loss in Britain itself. They denounced George III in language at once harsh and florid, and did so many months before Thomas Paine’s Common Sense. Even so, The Crisis did not call on Britons to overthrow monarchy with a republic, and its ardor for the Patriot cause cooled once Revolutionary Americans declared their independence. It stands as proof that strident rhetoric does not necessarily lead to radical political action. Its history also shows that ideas, once unleashed, take on a life of their own.

We have prepared a more detailed ToC for York’s The Crisis which includes the date, the author’s name, and the topic:

  1. NUMBER I January 20, 1775 - “To the People of England and America”
  2. NUMBER II January 28, 1775 - “A Bloody Court, A Bloody Ministry, And A Bloody Parliament” and a poem “These mighty Crimes will sure ere long provoke, The Arm of Britain to some noble Stroke.”
  3. NUMBER III February 4, 1775 - “To the KING: TO follow you regularly through every Step of a fourteen Years SHAMEFUL and INGLORIOUS Reign.”
  4. NUMBER IV February 11, 1775 - “Ye CONSPIRATORS against the LIBERTIES of Mankind” and “TO THE Officers, Soldiers, and Seamen”.
  5. NUMBER V February 18, 1775 - “Resistance to Tyrants and the Instruments of Tyranny is Justifiable, and Warranted, by all the Laws of God and Man”
  6. NUMBER VI February 25, 1775 - “To the Right Honourable LORD NORTH, First Lord of the Treasury” and “A Parody, for your Lordship’s Perusal”.
  7. NUMBER VII March 4, 1775 - Junius, “To the Right Honourable LORD APSLEY, Lord Chancellor of England”
  8. NUMBER VIII March 11, 1775 - “To the Lords Suffolk, Pomfret, Radnor, Apsley, and Sandwich”.
  9. NUMBER IX March 18, 1775 - “The worst of all Tyranny is that established by Law. To the KING”.
  10. NUMBER X March 25, 1775 - Junius, “LETTER II.: To the Right Honourable LORD APSLEY, Lord Chancellor of England”.
  11. NUMBER XI April 1, 1775 - “THIS Country is now reduced to a Situation really Degrading and Deplorable”.
  12. NUMBER XII April 8, 1775 - “The prophecy of Ruin, A POEM.”
  13. NUMBER XIII April 15, 1775 - Casca, “With Rage from Hell the Tyrant’s Heart may glow, But He’s no Briton who can strike the Blow,” “The Address, Remonstrance, and Petition of the CITY of LONDON,” and “The KING’s ANSWER, Which would do Honour to any BUTCHER, MONSTER, or TYRANT on Earth.”
  14. NUMBER XIV April 22, 1775 - “The present Necessary DEFENSIVE War on the Part of America.”
  15. NUMBER XV April 29, 1775 - Casca, “A constant Scourge—still I’ll renew the Charge, And lash the Tyrant as his Crimes enlarge.”
  16. NUMBER XVI May 6, 1775 - Casca, “To SUPPLICATION turn a Princely ear; Nor MURDER Subjects you have SWORN to HEAR.”
  17. NUMBER XVII May 13, 1775 - “Casca’s Epistle to LORD MANSFIELD” (a poem).
  18. NUMBER XVIII May 20, 1775 - “Casca’s Epistle to LORD NORTH” (a poem): “ If sad Britannia wails, in deep Distress, Her Taxes greater and her Freedom less.”
  19. NUMBER XIX May 27, 1775 - “ADMINISTRATION has now “let slip the Dogs of War.”
  20. NUMBER XX June 3, 1775 - “To the KING: LIKE that fell Monster, and infernal TYRANT Charles the First” and a poem “He that can levy WAR with all Mankind, Can cut his Subjects Throats, and fell his Friend”.
  21. NUMBER XXI June 10, 1775 - Casca, “To Lord NORTH” and “Remarks on his Majesty’s last most Gracious (I had like to have said infamous) Speech.”
  22. NUMBER XXII June 17, 1775 - “BLOOD calls for BLOOD. To the People of England.”
  23. NUMBER XXIII June 24, 1775 - Casca, “To his TYRANNIC MAJESTY.—the DEVIL” and “To the Lords BUTE and MANSFIELD.”
  24. NUMBER XXIV July 1, 1775 - Casca, “A Disease of a venal Majority in the great Council of the Nation.”
  25. NUMBER XXV July 8, 1775 - Casca, “Be wise, ye Kings, nor to mere Power trust.”
  26. NUMBER XXVI July 15, 1775 - Casca, “ADMINISTRATION dare not, as yet (or else they would) deny the Subjects Right of PETITIONING the King.”
  27. NUMBER XXVII July 22, 1775 - Cato, “To the KING.” A poem: “REFORM thy Conduct, Monarch, or attend, The Doom denounc’d, by Virtu’s constant Friend.”
  28. NUMBER XXVIII July 29, 1775 - By his Excellency Thomas Shaw, PROTECTOR and DEFENDER of MAGNA CHARTA, and the BILL of RIGHTS. A PROCLAMATION” and “God Save AMERICA.”
  29. NUMBER XXIX August 5, 1775 - “To the KING.” A poem: “ONCE more to stay the Fury of the Sword, Cato addresses Britain’s misled Lord”.
  30. A CRISIS EXTRAORDINARY. August 9, 1775 - Casca, “GENERAL GAGE’S Proclamation lies before me.”
  31. NUMBER XXX August 12, 1775 - “To the KING. From Philip Thicknesse, Esq.”
  32. NUMBER XXXI August 19, 1775 - “To the KING: For Seas of BLOOD which your mad Fury shed, God soon will hurl his Veng’ance on your Head.”
  33. NUMBER XXXII August 26, 1775 - Casca, “A ROUGH SKETCH For the ROYAL ACADEMY.” A poem: “SHUT not the Door, good Hertford, I’am but One, A single Sufferer can’t alarm the THRONE.”
  34. NUMBER XXXIII September 2, 1775 - Casca, ”MY two last Papers, described the morbid State of the Ministerial Majority of the great Council.”
  35. NUMBER XXXIV September 9, 1775 - Casca, “To Lord BUTE: I Shall address your Lordship with as little Ceremony as you have met with Occasionally.”
  36. NUMBER XXXV September 16, 1775 - Casca, “To the AUTHORS of the CRISIS: AS one of your Correspondents;” Thomas Shaw, “A FREE PRESS. To the PUBLIC;” and Detector, “HINTS for the AUTHOR of the CRISIS.”
  37. NUMBER XXXVI September 23, 1775 - Casca, “To the KING: LORD Bolingbroke has drawn a masterly Picture of a wise King in Idea.”
  38. NUMBER XXXVII September 30, 1775 - Brutus, “To the PEOPLE of ENGLAND: THE CRISIS is at length arrived when Truths are branded with the opprobrious Name of TREASON;” “Instructions from the FREEHOLDERS of the COUNTY of Middlesex, to the Right Honourable JOHN WILKES and JOHN GLYNN,” and “A Letter from the FREEHOLDERS of MIDDLESEX, to the FREEHOLDERS of GREAT BRITAIN.”
  39. NUMBER XXXVIII October 7, 1775 - Casca, “SINCE every Truth is now considered, by the King’s Friends, as a Libel upon Government.”
  40. NUMBER XXXIX October 14, 1775 - Casca, “An Ideal SCETCH of a FOOLISH KING. Continued from Number XXXVI. To the KING.”
  41. NUMBER XL October 21, 1775 - Casca, “An Ideal SCETCH of a FOOLISH KING finished. Continued from the last Number.”
  42. NUMBER XLI October 28, 1775 - “To the PEOPLE OF ENGLAND. Men and Britons, Friends and Countrymen.”
  43. NUMBER XLII November 4, 1775 - Casca, “* Whilst servile Wesley’s Pen with Johnson’s vyes, Enforcing all his Sophistry and Lyes.”
  44. NUMBER XLIII November 11, 1775 - “Of meaner Crimes we scorn to mention more, But of a M————R CROWN’D, besmeared with GORE.” And “To the PUBLIC. For COUGHS, COLDS, HOARSENESSES, &c. The PECTORAL DECOCTION, an infallible Remedy.”
  45. NUMBER XLIV November 18, 1775 - Allen’s Ghost, “I Have just observed how one of the weakest and wickedest men in England was lately escorted.”
  46. NUMBER XLV November 25, 1775 - “To the Earl of DARTMOUTH, Late Secretary of State for the Colonies.”
  47. NUMBER XLVI December 2, 1775 - “TO THE KING: Go on vile Prince by lawless strides, and try How soon your Crown will fade, your Empire die.”
  48. NUMBER XLVII December 9, 1775 - Casca, “EVERY wicked ministerial stratagem, every human and inhuman mode of distruction has been tried.”
  49. NUMBER XLVIII December 16, 1775 - “When Kings are base, when Tyrants they are grown, May Britons hurl them headlong from the Throne.”
  50. NUMBER XLIX December. 23, 1775 - “When Kings the Sword of Justice first lay down They are no Kings, tho’ they possess a CROWN.”
  51. NUMBER L December 30, 1775 - Casca, “* Whether by Valour, or Deceit we tame Our hostile Children, ’tis to Bute the same.”
  52. NUMBER LIJanuary 6, 1776 - “It is an Act of PUBLIC JUSTICE not only to RESTRAIN, but to DESTROY TYRANTS.”
  53. NUMBER LII January 13, 1776 - “SCOTCH REBELS, and Traitors Triumphant.”
  54. NUMBER LIII January 20, 1776 - Casca, “To LORD MANSFIELD: YOUR Lordship’s late Speech in the House of Lords upon the Restraining Bill.”
  55. NUMBER LIV January 27, 1776 - Casca, “To LORD MANSFIELD. [Continued from our last.”
  56. NUMBER LV February 3, 1776 - “A candid Appeal to every true Lover of God, his Country, and Himself; FRIENDS and COUNTRYMEN.”
  57. NUMBER LVI February 10, 1776 - “A candid Appeal to every true Lover of God, his Country, and Himself; [Concluded from our last.]
  58. NUMBER LVII February 17, 1776 - Brutus, “To the KING.” A “Remonstrance.”
  59. NUMBER LVIII February 24, 1776 - “To the KING: This galling Truth to GEORGE let BRITONS tell, When Kings grow TYRANTS Subjects will REBEL.”
  60. NUMBER LIX March 2, 1776 - Casca, “HAD I the honour of knowing Lord Mansfield.”
  61. NUMBER LX March 9, 1776 - “Qualifications requisite for PRIME MINISTER in the present Reign; the vilest that ever disgraced the Annals of this Kingdom.” And “NOW or NEVER! BRITONS strike HOME!”
  62. NUMBER LXI March 12, 1776 - Casca, “As Johnson noddles, right or wrong’s inferr’d; He stalks the Leader of the scribbling Herd.”
  63. NUMBER LXII March 23, 1776 - Casca, “[Concluded from our last.] MR. Wesley asks,—“How has any Man consented to those Laws which were made before he was born?””
  64. NUMBER LXIII March 30, 1776 - Casca, “Th’ abuse of Greatness is, when it disjoins Remorse from Power.”
  65. NUMBER LXIV April 6, 1776 - “GARDNER’s GHOST, A prophetic Ballad found in Merlin’s Cave, Richmond;” Tiberius, “REVOLVE your annals of mankind, and say, ye historians, which is the most horrible scene you have exhibited!;” and “To English SOLDIERS.”
  66. NUMBER LXV April 13, 1776 - Casca, “To LORD CHATHAM; I Have just read a letter given to the public in one of the daily papers.”
  67. NUMBER LXVI April 20, 1776 - “TO THE KING: They that resolve their Liberty to lose, Heav’n is too just that Freedom to refuse, But lets them have the Slav’ry which they choose.”
  68. NUMBER LXVII April 27, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: THE law is the great rule in every country, at least in every free country.”
  69. NUMBER LXVIII May 4, 1776 - “TO THE KING: IT ought to be a reflection which you should often make.”
  70. NUMBER LXIX May 11, 1776 - William Stewardson, “A serious Warning to Great Britain, addressed TO THE KING.”
  71. NUMBER LXX May 18, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: BY liberty, I understand the power which every man has over his own actions,.”
  72. NUMBER LXXI May 25, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: IT is altogether impossible for one man or a small number of men.”
  73. NUMBER LXXII June 1, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: To the worst and most infamous minister that ever disgraced this Country, LORD NORTH”
  74. NUMBER LXXIII June 8, 1776 - “To the Inhabitants of this once flourishing Nation. Friends and Fellow Subjects.”
  75. NUMBER LXXIV June 15, 1776 - Marcus, “To the right honourable John Earl of Sandwich, first lord of the Admiralty, &c.—alias Twitcher” and “Extract of a letter from a gentleman at Grantham, to his friend at Lincoln.”
  76. NUMBER LXXVJune 22, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: AS there must be in all well regulated states, a variety of offices,” and “A Recept to make a LORD, occasioned by a late Promotion.”
  77. NUMBER LXXVI June 29, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: POPULAR affection, when justly obtained.”
  78. NUMBER LXXVII July 6, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: AS the present government of England, under his piratical Majesty GEORGE the THIRD.”
  79. NUMBER LXXVIII July 13, 1776 - Casca, “To Lord GEORGE GERMAINE.”
  80. NUMBER LXXIX July 20, 1776 - “Reflections on the present conspiracy of the King and Parliament of Britain against the Americans.”
  81. NUMBER LXXX July 27, 1776 - “Reflections on the present conspiracy of the King and Parliament of Britain against the Americans. Continued from our last.”
  82. NUMBER LXXXI August 3, 1776- “Reflections on the present conspiracy of the King and Parliament of Britain against the Americans. Continued from our last.”
  83. NUMBER LXXXII August 10, 1776- “Reflections on the present conspiracy of the King and Parliament of Britain against the Americans. Concluded from our last” and “Lord Camden’s Speech in the House of Lords, in 1765, on the declaratory Bill of the sovereinty of Great Britain over her Colonies.”
  84. NUMBER LXXXIII August 17, 1776 - “I Cannot help thinking it an astonishing event in the history of human affairs.”
  85. NUMBER LXXXIV August 24, 1776 - “The following is the Declaration of INDEPENDENCE of the BRAVE, FREE, and VIRTUOUS Americans, against the most dastardly, slavish, and vicious TYRANT, that ever disgraced a Nation” and “Extract of a LETTER.”
  86. NUMBER LXXXV August 30, 1776 - “From the LONDON GA ZETTE of August 24” and “REMARKS.”
  87. NUMBER LXXXVI September 8, 1776 - Robert Molesworth, “The PRINCIPLES of a REAL WHIG” (Part 1).
  88. NUMBER LXXXVII September 14, 1776 - Robert Molesworth, “The PRINCIPLES of a REAL WHIG” (Part 2).
  89. NUMBER LXXXVIII September 21, 1776 - Robert Molesworth, “The PRINCIPLES of a REAL WHIG” (Part 3); and “CIRCULAR LETTER FROM THE LONDON ASSOCIATION.”
  90. NUMBER LXXXIX September 28, 1776 - “From the Virginia Gazette, and other American papers, dated August 3d, 1776.”
  91. NUMBER XC October 6, 1776 - “An EXTRACT from the Freeholder’s Political Catechism, written by the late Earl of Bath, containing a short but judicious Summary of the Duty, as well as Rights, of every English Freeholder” (Part 1).
  92. NUMBER XCI October 12, 1776 - “An EXTRACT from the Freeholder’s Political Catechism, written by the late Earl of Bath, containing a short but judicious Summary of the Duty, as well as Rights, of every English Freeholder” (Part 2) and “An ADDRESS from the AUTHORS to the PUBLIC.”

On Religion Considered in Its Source, Its Forms, and Its Developments (Benjamin Constant)

Constant.OnReligionConstant worked on this study of humanity’s religious forms and development throughout his life, eventually publishing five volumes between 1824 and 1831. His aims were to relate religious forms to their historical contexts and civilizational developments, to show partisans of the new post-revolutionary order that the religious impulse was natural to the human heart, and to show religious reactionaries that history had left them behind and that the natural state of the religious sentiment was an unfettered “spirituality” left free to find new forms of expression.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books January 4, 2018

Selections from Three Works (Francisco Suárez)

SuarezThreeWorksThe bulk of the selections in this volume are from A Treatise on Laws and God the Lawgiver (1612), “one of the major works of scholastic moral and legal theory,” writes volume editor Thomas Pink. In the Treatise, working within the framework originally elaborated by Thomas Aquinas, Suárez presented a systematic account of human moral activity in all its dimensions, synthesizing the entire scholastic heritage of thinking on this topic and identifying the key issues of debate and the key authors who had formulated the different positions most incisively. Then he went beyond this heritage of authorities to present a new account of human moral action and its relationship to the law.

The second selection is from A Defence of the Catholic and Apostolic Faith (1613), a treatise on the errors of Anglicanism and, in particular, on the errors of King James I in relation to the power of the king in temporal matters and the power of the pope to intervene in the cause of religion. The selections in the final section, A Work on the Three Theological Virtues (1621), are taken from Suárez’s accounts of faith and love, and they concern the conversion of unbelievers and the conditions of a just war.

The translations in this volume were originally published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Now republished with a new introduction, revisions to some of the existing notes, and additional notes, these selections are again available in English for those interested in the ethical and metaphysical foundations of political authority and the right to liberty. The texts are of special interest to historians of religious liberty, toleration, and coercion as a classic account of the coercive authority in matters of faith and religious practice of the Catholic church.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books November 7, 2017

Early Economic Thought in Spain, 1177-1740 (Marjorie Grice-Hutchinson)

In the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, clerics gave lectures at the University of Salamanca on such topics as the varying purchasing power of money, the morality of money, and how price is determined. While she was teaching at the London School of Economics, Marjorie Grice-Hutchinson was urged to investigate early records of these lectures. Her study of the manuscript notes of these then-obscure lectures led to her interest in the development of economic ideas in early Spain and their subsequent influence on the rest of Western Europe. The ideas of the Spanish scholastics influenced the work of Pufendorf, Locke, and Hutcheson, and the economic thinking of Condillac, Turgot, and Say. Grice-Hutchinson studied at the London School of Economics, where she received her Ph.D. on the monetary theory of the School of Salamanca under the supervision of F. A. Hayek.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books November 6, 2017

In Pursuit: Of Happiness and Good Government (Charles Murray)

In Pursuit: Of Happiness and Good Government begins by examining James Madison’s statement: “A good government implies two things; first, fidelity to the object of government, which is the happiness of the people; secondly, a knowledge of the means by which that object can best be attained.” Murray exhibits a thoughtful, accessible writing style as he considers such basic, important questions as whether individual efforts or government reform should be responsible for dealing with society’s problems. Drawing from his minimalist-government viewpoint, Murray proposes that government not try to force happiness on the people with federal policies or programs but, rather, that it provide conditions that enable people to pursue happiness on their own.

Murray also proposes that the pursuit of happiness be used as a framework for analyzing the efficacy of public policy, and he comes to the conclusion that Jeffersonian democracy is still the best way to run society, even today’s complex society.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books October 18, 2017

Democracy in America. English Edition. Vol. 2. (Alexis de Tocqueville)

Volume 2 of a two volume English only version of Liberty Fund’s 4 volume bi-lingual critical edition. In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville and his friend Gustave de Beaumont visited the United States. From Tocqueville’s copious notes of what he had seen and heard came the classic text De la Démocratie en Amérique, published in two large volumes, the first in 1835, the second in 1840. The first volume focused primarily on political society; the second, on civil society.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books October 18, 2017

Democracy in America. English Edition. 2 vols. (Alexis de Tocqueville)

TocquevilleEnglishA two volume English only version of Liberty Fund’s 4 volume bi-lingual critical edition. In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville and his friend Gustave de Beaumont visited the United States. From Tocqueville’s copious notes of what he had seen and heard came the classic text De la Démocratie en Amérique, published in two large volumes, the first in 1835, the second in 1840. The first volume focused primarily on political society; the second, on civil society.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books October 18, 2017

Democracy in America. English Edition. Vol. 1 (Alexis de Tocqueville)

Volume 1 of a two volume English only version of Liberty Fund’s 4 volume bi-lingual critical edition. In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville and his friend Gustave de Beaumont visited the United States. From Tocqueville’s copious notes of what he had seen and heard came the classic text De la Démocratie en Amérique, published in two large volumes, the first in 1835, the second in 1840. The first volume focused primarily on political society; the second, on civil society.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books October 18, 2017

Tocqueville’s Voyages: The Evolution of His Ideas and Their Journey Beyond His Time (Christine Dunn Henderson)

HendersonVoyagesTocqueville’s Voyages is a collection of newly written essays by some of the most well-known Tocquevillian scholars today. The essays in the first part of the volume explore the development of Tocqueville’s thought, his intellectual voyage, during his trip to America and while writing Democracy in America. The second part of the book focuses on the dissemination of Tocqueville’s ideas beyond the Franco-American context of 1835–1840 in places such as Argentina, Japan, and Eastern Europe.

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