The Online Library of Liberty

The aim of the OLL is to provide thousands of titles about individual liberty, limited constitutional government, and the free market, free of charge to the public, for educational purposes.

The Online Library of Liberty makes available at no charge to the public outstanding resources for teaching & learning about individual liberty. It has won a number of international awards and recognition from such bodies as the Library of Congress (we were selected for the Minerva Archiving Project), the National Endowment for the Humanities, and the British Arts & Humanities Research Council.

The works of hundreds of authors from ancient Sumeria to the present are represented. They are organized by author, historical period, and schools of thought. The latter includes the French Enlightenment, the Founding Fathers, 19th century natural rights theorists, the Austrian School of Economics, and many others.

Liberty Matters

Every two months the OLL hosts an online forum for scholars to discuss the significance of some of the key works in the OLL collection. A lead article on the topic is posted, which is followed by three or more response essays and then open debate. Topics covered so far include Eric Mack on “John Locke on Property,” Geoffrey Brennan on “James Buchanan: An Assessment,” and Roderick Long on “Gustave de Molinari’s Legacy for Liberty.”

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Recent Posts

Here are the 10 latest posts from OLL.

OLL August 1, 2018

Anti-Slavery Tracts. Second Series, nos. 1-25 (1860-62) (David M. Hart)

Anti-Slavery Tracts. Second Series, nos. 1-25 (New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1860-62).

OLL August 1, 2018

Anti-Slavery Tracts. First Series, Nos. 1-20 (1855-56) (David M. Hart)

AntiSlaveryTractsAnti-Slavery Tracts. First Series, Nos. 1-20 (New York: American Anti-Slavery Society, 1855-56).

OLL July 5, 2018

Zum Abschluss des Marxschen Systems (Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk)

Staatswissenschaftliche Arbeiten. Festgaben für Karl Knies zur fünfundsiebzigsten Wiederkehr seines Geburtstages in dankbaren Vehehring. Otto v. Boenigk (Hrsg.) (Berlin: O. Haering, 1896).

OLL July 5, 2018

Karl Marx and the close of his system, a criticism (Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk)

marx.criticismKarl Marx and the close of his system, a criticism. Translated by Alice M. Macdonald with a Preface by James Bonar (London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1898).

OLL July 3, 2018

Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Buch III, zweiter Theil (1894) (Karl Marx)

Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Oekonomie. Von Karl Marx. Dritter Band, zweiter Theil. Buch III: Der Gesammtprocess der kapitalistischen Produktion. Kapitel XXIX bis LII. Herausgegeben von Friedrich Engels. (Hamburg: Otto Meissner, 1894).

OLL July 3, 2018

Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Buch III, erster Theil (1894) (Karl Marx)

Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Von Karl Marx. Dritter Band erster Theil. Buch III: Der Gesamptprocess des kapitalistischen Produktion. Kapital I bis XXVIII. Herausgegeben von Friedrich Engels. (Hamburg: Otto Meissner, 1894).

OLL July 3, 2018

Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Buch 2 (1885) (Karl Marx)

Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Von Karl Marx. Zweiter Band. Buch II: Der Circulationsprocess des Kapitals. Herausgegeben von Friedrich Engels. (Hamburg: Otto Meissner, 1885).

OLL July 3, 2018

Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Buch 1 (1890) (Karl Marx)

Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Von Karl Marx. Erster Band. Buch I: Der Produktionsprocess des Kapitals. Vierte, durchgesehene Auflage. Herausgegeben von Friedrich Engels. (Hamburg: Otto Meissner, 1890).

OLL July 3, 2018

Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Oekonomie. Buch 1 (1867) (Karl Marx)

Das Kapital. Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Von Karl Marx. Erster Band. Buch I: Der Produktionsprocess des Kapitals. (Hamburg: Otto Meissner, 1867; New-York: L. W. Schmidt).

OLL June 29, 2018

Manifesto of the Communist Party (Karl Marx)

Communist.ManifestoManifesto of the Communist Party. By Karl Marx and Frederick Engels. Authorized English translation: Edited and Annotated by Frederick Engels (Chicago: Charles H. Kerr & Company, 1888, 1910).

Here are the 10 latest posts from OLL | Liberty Matters.

OLL | Liberty Matters October 1, 2018

Virgil Storr, "Marx and the Morality of Capitalism" (October, 2018)

Liberty MattersThis year is the bicentennial of the birth of Karl Marx (1818-1883) and in this month's Liberty Matters online discussion we will explore the strengths and weaknesses of Marx's political, economic, and social thought. The lead essay is by Virgil Store, senior research fellow at the Mercatus Center and a professor of economics at George Mason University, where he explores Marx's "moral critique of capitalism" which he argues underlies his economic and social critiques of capitalism. He is joined in this discussion by Pete Boettke, Professor of Economics and Philosophy at George Mason University; Steve Horwitz, Distinguished Professor of Free Enterprise in the department of economics at Ball State University in Muncie, Indiana; David Prychitko, professor of economics at Northern Michigan University; and David Hart, the Director of Liberty Fund's Online Library of Liberty Project.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters July 1, 2018

Peter Lewin, "Ludwig Lachmann – Enigmatic and Controversial Austrian Economist" (July. 2018)

Liberty MattersThis month’s Liberty Matters discusses the work of the Austrian economist Ludwig M. Lachmann (1906 - 1990). All his whole professional life Lachmann considered himself an "Austrian" economist, a soldier dedicated to fostering an appreciation of Austrian insights and to developing those insights beyond the initial contributions of Carl Menger. So Lachmann saw it as his mission to advance among the Austrians a heightened appreciation of the importance of the subjective and autonomous nature of expectations. Lachmann’s most significant contribution to economic theory was to the theory of capital. These contributions can be found in numerous articles in the 1940s, during the LSE period, culminating in his book Capital and its Structure (1956), and in various articles subsequently right up until his death, and also in his final full length work, The Market as an Economic Process (1986). Lachmann’s capital theory is a logical outgrowth of his methodological and epistemological views. In other words, it reflects his thoroughgoing subjectivism. The topic is introduced by Peter Lewin, Clinical Professor in the Jindal School of Management, University of Texas, Dallas, and is joined in the discussion by Hans Eicholz, Senior Fellow at Liberty Fund; Paul Lewis, Reader in Economics and Public Policy at King’s College London; Mario J. Rizzo, professor of economics at NYU, and Bill Tulloh is a cofounder and economist at Agoric.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters June 12, 2018

Eric Mack on "John Locke on Property" (January 2013)





John Locke (1632-1704)
Second Treatise of Government (1689)


OLL | Liberty Matters May 1, 2018

Alan Kahan, "Limited Government, Unlimited Liberalism. Or, How Benjamin Constant was a Kantian After All" [May, 2018]

Liberty MattersIn this month's discussion Alan S. Kahan, Professor of British Civilization at the Université de Versailles/St. Quentin, argues that Benjamin Constant, like Immanuel Kant, analyzed politics from a double perspective. Kant divided his Metaphysics of Morals into what he called the "Doctrine of Right," about how human behavior affects other people, which is the business of the state, and the "Doctrine of Virtue," which relates to human beings' internal obligations, their motives and duties, which are not the state's business. In Constant this double perspective takes the form of strictly limiting the sphere in which it is legitimate for the state to act, the equivalent of Kant's doctrine of right, and of close attention to human moral and religious development, the equivalent of Kant's doctrine of virtue. For both Kant and Constant the state's sphere of action must be strictly limited. But the limits they impose on the state do not limit the scope of their commentary on the relationship between politics and religion and morals. Indeed, for Constant at least, a limited state must rest on a broad religious/moral foundation to survive. Alan Kahan is joined in the discussion by Aurelian Craiutu, professor of political science at Indiana University, Bloomington; Bryan Garsten, professor of political science and humanities at Yale University; and Jacob T. Levy, Professor of Political Theory in the department of philosophy at McGill University.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters March 1, 2018

Henry C. Clark, "How Radical Was the Political Thought of the Encyclopédie?" (March, 2018)

Liberty MattersIn this month's discussion Henry C. Clark, who is a visiting professor in the Political Economy Project at Dartmouth College and the editor and translator of Denis Diderot's Encyclopedic Liberty (Liberty Fund, 2016), explores some of the currents of political thought which swept through the massive 17 volume Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers which appeared over a 15 year period between 1751 and 1765. In his lead essay he argues that, although it offended at times the Church and the French government, it could be read in ambiguous ways. The influences of John Locke, Voltaire, and Montesquieu are assessed and he concludes that the Encyclopédie was "not so much an ideology as a quarry" from which different readers were destined to draw different kinds of inspiration. Hank is joined in this discussion by Dan Edelstein who is William H. Bonsall Professor of French, Stanford University; Andrew Jainchill, Associate Professor, Department of History, Queens University, Kingston Ontario; and Kent Wright, Associate Professor School of Civic and Economic Thought and Leadership, Arizona State University.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters January 2, 2018

Nicholas Capaldi, "The Place of Liberty in David Hume's Project" (January, 2018)

Liberty MattersNick Capaldi, the Legendre-Soulé Distinguished Chair of Business Ethics in the School of Business of Loyola University, New Orleans, outlines David Hume's ambitious "Project" with a list of 8 "theses", the last of which states that "Liberty is the Central Theme." Capaldi's gloss on this thesis is "The ultimate ontological reality is the individual human agent; there is no institution or practice that transcends the individual; the legitimacy of any practice is based on the acquiescence of individuals.  Acquiescence is not consent. There is no philosophical argument for liberty: it is the default position.  Given its unique history, England was able to preserve and elaborate this insight in large part because of its inherent disposition to distrust abstractions – this is the British Intellectual Inheritance, and Hume's philosophical practice as well as his History is the only meaningful kind of account that can be given." Capaldi is joined in this month's discussion by Daniel Klein who is professor of economics and JIN Chair at the Mercatus Center at George Mason University; Chandran Kukathas who holds the Chair of Political Theory in the Department of Government at the London School of Economics; Andrew Sabl who is Orrick Fellow and Visiting Professor in the Program on Ethics, Politics and Economics, Yale University; and Mark Yellin of Liberty Fund.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters November 1, 2017

Peter Boettke, "Gordon Tullock and the Rational Choice Commitment" (November, 2017)

Liberty MattersThis month's discussion looks at the work of the political economist Gordon Tullock who saw himself very much in the tradition of Mises – a praxeologist who from a methodologically individualistic perspective would study human action across all social arrangements.  Tullock's subject matter was humanity in all settings, and that included not just markets, but non-market settings such as law, politics, and charity.  Along the way he made fundamental contributions to the theory of bureaucracy, constitutional construction, judicial decision-making, voting behavior, lobbying, scientific organization, redistribution, and even sociobiology. The Lead Essay is by Peter J. Boettke, University Professor of Economics and Philosophy at George Mason University, and he is joined by Peter Kurril-Klitgard, Professor of Political Theory and Comparative Politics at the Dept. of Political Science of the University of Copenhagen, David M. Levy, Professor of Economics at George Mason University, and Michael Munger, director of the PPE Program at Duke University and professor of political science, economics, and public policy.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters September 2, 2017

Peter Boettke, "Hayek's Epistemic Liberalism" (September, 2017)

Liberty MattersPeter J. Boettke, Professor of Economics and Philosophy at George Mason University, argues that is a common trope to claim that F. A. Hayek experienced a crushing defeat in technical economics during the 1930s.  At the beginning of the decade, Hayek emerged in the British scientific community as a leading economic theorist. Yet by the end of the decade Hayek was supposedly defeated in his debate both with Keynes and with Oskar Lange and Abba Lerner over market socialism. However, this narrative reflects a fundamental misunderstanding of the teachings of economics from the classical to the early neoclassical economists.  Economic life from Adam Smith to J. S. Mill never was treated as taking place in an institutional vacuum.  Instead, law, politics, and social mores all constituted the institutional background against which economic life played out. As Boettke argues in the Lead Essay, Hayek’s epistemic institutionalism, as articulated in the 1930s and 1940s, provided the foundation for his own reconstruction and restatement of liberal political economy as evidenced in The Constitution of Liberty (1960) and Law, Legislation and Liberty (1973-79). Recognizing this aspect of Hayek’s thought is a first step to recognizing his broader contributions to economic science and the art of political economy. Boettke is joined in this discussion by Steven Horwitz, the John H. Schnatter Distinguished Professor of Free Enterprise in the department of economics at Ball State University, Roger Koppl, professor of finance in the Whitman School of Management of Syracuse University, and Adam Martin is a Political Economy Research Fellow at the Free Market Institute and an assistant professor in the department of Agricultural and Applied Economics at Texas Tech University.

OLL | Liberty Matters July 5, 2017

Matt Zwolinski, "William Graham Sumner – Liberty's Forgotten Man" (July 2017)

Liberty Matters History has not been kind to the legacy of William Graham Sumner. In his time (1840-1910), Sumner was one of the most prestigious and widely read libertarian intellectuals in the United States. Beyond his more technical academic work Sumner also wrote passionately and voluminously in defense of laissez faireon a wide range of social issues. His popular critique of protectionism, "The –ism Which Teaches that Waste Makes Wealth" (1885) and his denunciation of imperialism in "The Conquest of the United States by Spain" (1898) are two of his most impressive polemical works. Sumner's most sustained investigation of questions of economic policy and distributive justice appeared in a collection essays What Social Classes Owe to Each Other (1883) which includes his most famous single essay – "The Forgotten Man" (1884). Unfortunately, Sumner's intellectual legacy suffered essentially the same fate as that of his contemporary Herbert Spencer, and for much the same reason. From near-ubiquity and respectability, Sumner's ideas have descended into obscurity and disrepute. To the extent he is remembered at all today, it is mostly for his alleged "social Darwinism." In this essayMatt Zwolinski, professor of philosophy at the University of San Diego, examines the charge of social Darwinism, and, more generally, the nature of Sumner's views on redistribution and our responsibilities toward the poor and vulnerable, and concludes that the charge of social Darwinism is mistaken as applied to Sumner, whi is a principled libertarian, not a social Darwinist. Moreover, he is a libertarian who took special pains to demonstrate the ways in which a regime of liberty is especially beneficial to society's most vulnerable members. Matt is joined in the dicussion by Phillip W. Magness, a historian based in the Washington, D.C. region, Robert Leroux, professor of sociology at the University of Ottawa, and Fabio Rojas, professor of sociology at Indiana University.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

OLL | Liberty Matters May 18, 2017

George H. Smith, "The System of Liberty" (September 2013)

This is a discussion of George H. Smith’s new book The System of Liberty: Themes in the History of Classical Liberalism published by Cambridge University Press (2013). Smith describes how he came to write the book, the works of the history of political thought which inspired him (in particular the writings of the German legal historian Otto von Gierke), and the methodology he uses in approaching the history of ideas (Locke’s idea of “the presumption of coherence”). He demonstrates his approach with a brief discussion of one of the key ideas he has identified in the history of classical liberal thought, namley, the idea of “inalienable rights,” or to phrase it in the terminology of 17th century natural rights philosophers like Pufendorf, the distinction between “perfect and imperfect rights.” His essay is discussed by Jason Brennan, assistant professor of strategy, economics, ethics, and public policy at Georgetown University; David Gordon, Senior Fellow at the Ludwig von Mises Institute; and Ralph Raico, Professor Emeritus of History at the Buffalo State College.

See the Archive of "Liberty Matters".

Here are the 10 latest posts from OLL | Images of Liberty.

OLL | Images of Liberty September 16, 2017

Encyclopedic Liberty and Industry

EncyclopedieThis illustrated essay explores some images of "liberty" and "industry" from Diderot’s Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (Encyclopaedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts) (1751-1772). They have been taken from Liberty Fund’s anthology of articles, Encyclopedic Liberty: Political Articles in the Dictionary of Diderot and D'Alembert (2016) and the supplementary volumes of illustrations from the original 18th century edition.

OLL | Images of Liberty September 16, 2017

Encyclopedic Liberty and Industry

Mises on Gresham’s Law and Ancient Greek Silver Coins

DemarateionIn an Appendix to his The Theory of Money and Credit (1912) the Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) discussed the value of a silver coin issued by Gelon the King of Syracuse in 480 BC. A picture of the coin was used on the original cover of the book. Mises was interested in these coins because he believed that sound currency emerged in the ancient world as a result of the productive economic activity which went on in places such as Lydia (Turkey) and Athens. These places remained economically powerful only so long as they retained a sound currency, which he believed Athens did and the other Greek city states did not. The Appendix about this coin is included below along with the illustration.

Austria D1 1911

OLL | Images of Liberty December 4, 2016

Ngrams and the Changing Vocabulary of Class Analysis in 19th Century Classical Liberal Thought

| | | Honoré Daumier, "The Army Hierarchy" (1850s)
[See higher resolution image] |

What are Ngrams?

According to the Wikipedia article on The Google Ngram Viewer:

The Google Ngram Viewer or Google Books Ngram Viewer is an online search engine that charts frequencies of any set of comma-delimited search strings using a yearly count of n-grams found in sources printed between 1500 and 2008 in Google's text corpora in American English, British English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, or Chinese, generated in either 2008 or 2012; there are also some specialized English-language corpora, such as English Fiction. ...

The program can search for a single word or a phrase, including misspellings or gibberish. The n-grams are matched with the text within the selected corpus, optionally using case-sensitive spelling (which compares the exact use of uppercase letters), and, if found in 40 or more books, are then plotted on a graph.


Art of the Levellers

Art.of.LevellersIn the course of putting together a multi-volume collection of over 240 Leveller Tracts I came across some very interesting title pages which used typography and occasionally woodcuts to add graphical force to the political and economic arguments being made by the authors. The pamphlets were published in their thousands during the 1640s and 1650s - the London bookseller George Thomason collected 23,000 of them over a period of twenty years and these comprise a major collection which is held by the British Library.

OLL | Images of Liberty April 12, 2016

Samuel warns the Israelites of the Dangers of Kings


"Saul is ordered to destroy all the Amalekites and their livestock,"
[page 24 verso, lower panel]
The Morgan Picture Bible (c. 1250)

Many Christians in 17th century England and 17th and 18th century North America were struck by some passages in I Samuel in which the prophet Samuel warned about the dangers a King would pose to the liberties of the Israelite people. This struck a chord with those who were fighting the growing power of the Stuart monarchy or the efforts of the British Empire to exert its power over the North American colonies. The art we have chosen to illustrate these passages come from the Illustrated Bible commissioned by King Louis IX (1214-1270) of France in the mid-13th century. They provide a stark contrast to the anti-monarchical sentiment of 17th and 18th century Englishmen. Louis IX arranged for these illustrations to be made because he wanted to assert his divine right to rule France and saw in the commands of Samuel and the actions of King Saul both historical and theological precedent upon which he could draw to justify his own behavior.

OLL | Images of Liberty April 12, 2016

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

declaration.rights.droitsTo celebrate Bastille Day this year we have a beautiful poster which was printed at the time of the issuing of the Declaration to spread its message throughout the country. It was designed to be hung in public places so that ordinary people could see what the Assembly was doing in their name. George Jellinek in his study of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of Citizens (1895, English trans. by Max Farand 1901) argues that the French were strongly influenced by the precedents of the American states' constitutions and bill of rights which were developed during the American Revolution.

OLL | Images of Liberty April 12, 2016

Adam Smith and J.B. Say on the Division of Labour

Pin FactoryOne of the most famous stories in economics is Adam Smith's story of the pin-maker. It has been repeated endlessly by other economists as it encapsulates quite nicely one of the key insights of economic analysis, namely the benefits of the division of labor. It would have to rank alongside Frédéric Bastiat's story of the broken window in popularity. The purpose of the story is to illustrate how much greater output could be achieved if numerous workers cooperated by taking one small task each in building a complex good like a pin or a nail. Adam Smith developed his ideas about the division of labour in the 1760s and 1770 as he was giving lectures and writing the Wealth of Nations (1776). At the same time Denis Diderot in France was compiling the famous Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers which appeared between 1751 and 1772. The articles in the Encyclopédie were accompanied by beautifully drawn illustrations, such as the ones we include below of a pin factory. Members of both the Scottish and French enlightenments were facsinated by the opportunities offered by technological and economic change in such things as seemingly "very trifling" as the making of a pin.

OLL | Images of Liberty April 12, 2016

Ludwig von Mises on Rationing in WW2

During the war years the Austrian-American free market economist Ludwig von Mises (1881-1973) wrote a number of books which criticised government intervention and control of the economy, especially price controls, rationing, policies of economic autarchy, the diversion of labor and other resources to war production, and the financing of the war through loans, confiscation, and inflation. While Mises was living and working in the U.S. he would have seen the propaganda produced by the American government encouraging U.S. citizens to make sacrifices for the war effort, such as the use of "ration books" and price controls in order to allocate resources away from consumers and towards war industries, to seek work in "essential" war industries and the transport of munitions, and to forgo the use of certain products essential to the war effort such as fats and rubber. We reproduce some of these images here.


Herbert Roese, "Rationing means a fair share for all of us" (American Office of Price Administration, 1943)

OLL | Images of Liberty April 12, 2016

New Picture of Tocqueville in 1848

While putting Tocqueville's "Recollections" online I found this lovely "photogravure" picture of him here which I compare to a contemporary picture of Bastiat, both of whom served in the Chamber of Deputies during the 1848 Revolution.


Here are the 10 latest posts from OLL | Quotations.

Here are the 10 latest posts from OLL | Liberty Fund Books.

The Crisis: A British Defense of American Rights, 1775–1776 (Neil L. York)

The Crisis was a London weekly published between January 1775 and October 1776. It was the longest-running weekly pamphlet series printed in the British Atlantic world during those years, and it used unusually bold, pithy language. Neither the longevity of the effort nor the colorful language employed would be reason enough to collect and print all ninety-two issues under one cover in a modern edition. The Crisis lays claim to our attention because of its place in the rise of freedom of the press, its self-conscious attempt to create a transatlantic community of protest, and its targeting of the king as the source of political problems—but without attacking the institution of monarchy itself.

The Crisis was condemned informally by leaders in the British government, and then formally in court, as a dangerous example of seditious libel. Copies of it were publicly burned, and yet publication continued uninterrupted. The men behind The Crisis were determined to interest the British public in American affairs and were no doubt pleased when various issues were reprinted in the colonies. They played on shared beliefs and shared fears: beliefs in the existence of fundamental rights, rights beyond the reach of any government, and the fear that loss of those rights in Britain’s American colonies could lead to their loss in Britain itself. They denounced George III in language at once harsh and florid, and did so many months before Thomas Paine’s Common Sense. Even so, The Crisis did not call on Britons to overthrow monarchy with a republic, and its ardor for the Patriot cause cooled once Revolutionary Americans declared their independence. It stands as proof that strident rhetoric does not necessarily lead to radical political action. Its history also shows that ideas, once unleashed, take on a life of their own.

We have prepared a more detailed ToC for York’s The Crisis which includes the date, the author’s name, and the topic:

  1. NUMBER I January 20, 1775 - “To the People of England and America”
  2. NUMBER II January 28, 1775 - “A Bloody Court, A Bloody Ministry, And A Bloody Parliament” and a poem “These mighty Crimes will sure ere long provoke, The Arm of Britain to some noble Stroke.”
  3. NUMBER III February 4, 1775 - “To the KING: TO follow you regularly through every Step of a fourteen Years SHAMEFUL and INGLORIOUS Reign.”
  4. NUMBER IV February 11, 1775 - “Ye CONSPIRATORS against the LIBERTIES of Mankind” and “TO THE Officers, Soldiers, and Seamen”.
  5. NUMBER V February 18, 1775 - “Resistance to Tyrants and the Instruments of Tyranny is Justifiable, and Warranted, by all the Laws of God and Man”
  6. NUMBER VI February 25, 1775 - “To the Right Honourable LORD NORTH, First Lord of the Treasury” and “A Parody, for your Lordship’s Perusal”.
  7. NUMBER VII March 4, 1775 - Junius, “To the Right Honourable LORD APSLEY, Lord Chancellor of England”
  8. NUMBER VIII March 11, 1775 - “To the Lords Suffolk, Pomfret, Radnor, Apsley, and Sandwich”.
  9. NUMBER IX March 18, 1775 - “The worst of all Tyranny is that established by Law. To the KING”.
  10. NUMBER X March 25, 1775 - Junius, “LETTER II.: To the Right Honourable LORD APSLEY, Lord Chancellor of England”.
  11. NUMBER XI April 1, 1775 - “THIS Country is now reduced to a Situation really Degrading and Deplorable”.
  12. NUMBER XII April 8, 1775 - “The prophecy of Ruin, A POEM.”
  13. NUMBER XIII April 15, 1775 - Casca, “With Rage from Hell the Tyrant’s Heart may glow, But He’s no Briton who can strike the Blow,” “The Address, Remonstrance, and Petition of the CITY of LONDON,” and “The KING’s ANSWER, Which would do Honour to any BUTCHER, MONSTER, or TYRANT on Earth.”
  14. NUMBER XIV April 22, 1775 - “The present Necessary DEFENSIVE War on the Part of America.”
  15. NUMBER XV April 29, 1775 - Casca, “A constant Scourge—still I’ll renew the Charge, And lash the Tyrant as his Crimes enlarge.”
  16. NUMBER XVI May 6, 1775 - Casca, “To SUPPLICATION turn a Princely ear; Nor MURDER Subjects you have SWORN to HEAR.”
  17. NUMBER XVII May 13, 1775 - “Casca’s Epistle to LORD MANSFIELD” (a poem).
  18. NUMBER XVIII May 20, 1775 - “Casca’s Epistle to LORD NORTH” (a poem): “ If sad Britannia wails, in deep Distress, Her Taxes greater and her Freedom less.”
  19. NUMBER XIX May 27, 1775 - “ADMINISTRATION has now “let slip the Dogs of War.”
  20. NUMBER XX June 3, 1775 - “To the KING: LIKE that fell Monster, and infernal TYRANT Charles the First” and a poem “He that can levy WAR with all Mankind, Can cut his Subjects Throats, and fell his Friend”.
  21. NUMBER XXI June 10, 1775 - Casca, “To Lord NORTH” and “Remarks on his Majesty’s last most Gracious (I had like to have said infamous) Speech.”
  22. NUMBER XXII June 17, 1775 - “BLOOD calls for BLOOD. To the People of England.”
  23. NUMBER XXIII June 24, 1775 - Casca, “To his TYRANNIC MAJESTY.—the DEVIL” and “To the Lords BUTE and MANSFIELD.”
  24. NUMBER XXIV July 1, 1775 - Casca, “A Disease of a venal Majority in the great Council of the Nation.”
  25. NUMBER XXV July 8, 1775 - Casca, “Be wise, ye Kings, nor to mere Power trust.”
  26. NUMBER XXVI July 15, 1775 - Casca, “ADMINISTRATION dare not, as yet (or else they would) deny the Subjects Right of PETITIONING the King.”
  27. NUMBER XXVII July 22, 1775 - Cato, “To the KING.” A poem: “REFORM thy Conduct, Monarch, or attend, The Doom denounc’d, by Virtu’s constant Friend.”
  28. NUMBER XXVIII July 29, 1775 - By his Excellency Thomas Shaw, PROTECTOR and DEFENDER of MAGNA CHARTA, and the BILL of RIGHTS. A PROCLAMATION” and “God Save AMERICA.”
  29. NUMBER XXIX August 5, 1775 - “To the KING.” A poem: “ONCE more to stay the Fury of the Sword, Cato addresses Britain’s misled Lord”.
  30. A CRISIS EXTRAORDINARY. August 9, 1775 - Casca, “GENERAL GAGE’S Proclamation lies before me.”
  31. NUMBER XXX August 12, 1775 - “To the KING. From Philip Thicknesse, Esq.”
  32. NUMBER XXXI August 19, 1775 - “To the KING: For Seas of BLOOD which your mad Fury shed, God soon will hurl his Veng’ance on your Head.”
  33. NUMBER XXXII August 26, 1775 - Casca, “A ROUGH SKETCH For the ROYAL ACADEMY.” A poem: “SHUT not the Door, good Hertford, I’am but One, A single Sufferer can’t alarm the THRONE.”
  34. NUMBER XXXIII September 2, 1775 - Casca, ”MY two last Papers, described the morbid State of the Ministerial Majority of the great Council.”
  35. NUMBER XXXIV September 9, 1775 - Casca, “To Lord BUTE: I Shall address your Lordship with as little Ceremony as you have met with Occasionally.”
  36. NUMBER XXXV September 16, 1775 - Casca, “To the AUTHORS of the CRISIS: AS one of your Correspondents;” Thomas Shaw, “A FREE PRESS. To the PUBLIC;” and Detector, “HINTS for the AUTHOR of the CRISIS.”
  37. NUMBER XXXVI September 23, 1775 - Casca, “To the KING: LORD Bolingbroke has drawn a masterly Picture of a wise King in Idea.”
  38. NUMBER XXXVII September 30, 1775 - Brutus, “To the PEOPLE of ENGLAND: THE CRISIS is at length arrived when Truths are branded with the opprobrious Name of TREASON;” “Instructions from the FREEHOLDERS of the COUNTY of Middlesex, to the Right Honourable JOHN WILKES and JOHN GLYNN,” and “A Letter from the FREEHOLDERS of MIDDLESEX, to the FREEHOLDERS of GREAT BRITAIN.”
  39. NUMBER XXXVIII October 7, 1775 - Casca, “SINCE every Truth is now considered, by the King’s Friends, as a Libel upon Government.”
  40. NUMBER XXXIX October 14, 1775 - Casca, “An Ideal SCETCH of a FOOLISH KING. Continued from Number XXXVI. To the KING.”
  41. NUMBER XL October 21, 1775 - Casca, “An Ideal SCETCH of a FOOLISH KING finished. Continued from the last Number.”
  42. NUMBER XLI October 28, 1775 - “To the PEOPLE OF ENGLAND. Men and Britons, Friends and Countrymen.”
  43. NUMBER XLII November 4, 1775 - Casca, “* Whilst servile Wesley’s Pen with Johnson’s vyes, Enforcing all his Sophistry and Lyes.”
  44. NUMBER XLIII November 11, 1775 - “Of meaner Crimes we scorn to mention more, But of a M————R CROWN’D, besmeared with GORE.” And “To the PUBLIC. For COUGHS, COLDS, HOARSENESSES, &c. The PECTORAL DECOCTION, an infallible Remedy.”
  45. NUMBER XLIV November 18, 1775 - Allen’s Ghost, “I Have just observed how one of the weakest and wickedest men in England was lately escorted.”
  46. NUMBER XLV November 25, 1775 - “To the Earl of DARTMOUTH, Late Secretary of State for the Colonies.”
  47. NUMBER XLVI December 2, 1775 - “TO THE KING: Go on vile Prince by lawless strides, and try How soon your Crown will fade, your Empire die.”
  48. NUMBER XLVII December 9, 1775 - Casca, “EVERY wicked ministerial stratagem, every human and inhuman mode of distruction has been tried.”
  49. NUMBER XLVIII December 16, 1775 - “When Kings are base, when Tyrants they are grown, May Britons hurl them headlong from the Throne.”
  50. NUMBER XLIX December. 23, 1775 - “When Kings the Sword of Justice first lay down They are no Kings, tho’ they possess a CROWN.”
  51. NUMBER L December 30, 1775 - Casca, “* Whether by Valour, or Deceit we tame Our hostile Children, ’tis to Bute the same.”
  52. NUMBER LIJanuary 6, 1776 - “It is an Act of PUBLIC JUSTICE not only to RESTRAIN, but to DESTROY TYRANTS.”
  53. NUMBER LII January 13, 1776 - “SCOTCH REBELS, and Traitors Triumphant.”
  54. NUMBER LIII January 20, 1776 - Casca, “To LORD MANSFIELD: YOUR Lordship’s late Speech in the House of Lords upon the Restraining Bill.”
  55. NUMBER LIV January 27, 1776 - Casca, “To LORD MANSFIELD. [Continued from our last.”
  56. NUMBER LV February 3, 1776 - “A candid Appeal to every true Lover of God, his Country, and Himself; FRIENDS and COUNTRYMEN.”
  57. NUMBER LVI February 10, 1776 - “A candid Appeal to every true Lover of God, his Country, and Himself; [Concluded from our last.]
  58. NUMBER LVII February 17, 1776 - Brutus, “To the KING.” A “Remonstrance.”
  59. NUMBER LVIII February 24, 1776 - “To the KING: This galling Truth to GEORGE let BRITONS tell, When Kings grow TYRANTS Subjects will REBEL.”
  60. NUMBER LIX March 2, 1776 - Casca, “HAD I the honour of knowing Lord Mansfield.”
  61. NUMBER LX March 9, 1776 - “Qualifications requisite for PRIME MINISTER in the present Reign; the vilest that ever disgraced the Annals of this Kingdom.” And “NOW or NEVER! BRITONS strike HOME!”
  62. NUMBER LXI March 12, 1776 - Casca, “As Johnson noddles, right or wrong’s inferr’d; He stalks the Leader of the scribbling Herd.”
  63. NUMBER LXII March 23, 1776 - Casca, “[Concluded from our last.] MR. Wesley asks,—“How has any Man consented to those Laws which were made before he was born?””
  64. NUMBER LXIII March 30, 1776 - Casca, “Th’ abuse of Greatness is, when it disjoins Remorse from Power.”
  65. NUMBER LXIV April 6, 1776 - “GARDNER’s GHOST, A prophetic Ballad found in Merlin’s Cave, Richmond;” Tiberius, “REVOLVE your annals of mankind, and say, ye historians, which is the most horrible scene you have exhibited!;” and “To English SOLDIERS.”
  66. NUMBER LXV April 13, 1776 - Casca, “To LORD CHATHAM; I Have just read a letter given to the public in one of the daily papers.”
  67. NUMBER LXVI April 20, 1776 - “TO THE KING: They that resolve their Liberty to lose, Heav’n is too just that Freedom to refuse, But lets them have the Slav’ry which they choose.”
  68. NUMBER LXVII April 27, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: THE law is the great rule in every country, at least in every free country.”
  69. NUMBER LXVIII May 4, 1776 - “TO THE KING: IT ought to be a reflection which you should often make.”
  70. NUMBER LXIX May 11, 1776 - William Stewardson, “A serious Warning to Great Britain, addressed TO THE KING.”
  71. NUMBER LXX May 18, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: BY liberty, I understand the power which every man has over his own actions,.”
  72. NUMBER LXXI May 25, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: IT is altogether impossible for one man or a small number of men.”
  73. NUMBER LXXII June 1, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: To the worst and most infamous minister that ever disgraced this Country, LORD NORTH”
  74. NUMBER LXXIII June 8, 1776 - “To the Inhabitants of this once flourishing Nation. Friends and Fellow Subjects.”
  75. NUMBER LXXIV June 15, 1776 - Marcus, “To the right honourable John Earl of Sandwich, first lord of the Admiralty, &c.—alias Twitcher” and “Extract of a letter from a gentleman at Grantham, to his friend at Lincoln.”
  76. NUMBER LXXVJune 22, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: AS there must be in all well regulated states, a variety of offices,” and “A Recept to make a LORD, occasioned by a late Promotion.”
  77. NUMBER LXXVI June 29, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: POPULAR affection, when justly obtained.”
  78. NUMBER LXXVII July 6, 1776 - “For the CRISIS: AS the present government of England, under his piratical Majesty GEORGE the THIRD.”
  79. NUMBER LXXVIII July 13, 1776 - Casca, “To Lord GEORGE GERMAINE.”
  80. NUMBER LXXIX July 20, 1776 - “Reflections on the present conspiracy of the King and Parliament of Britain against the Americans.”
  81. NUMBER LXXX July 27, 1776 - “Reflections on the present conspiracy of the King and Parliament of Britain against the Americans. Continued from our last.”
  82. NUMBER LXXXI August 3, 1776- “Reflections on the present conspiracy of the King and Parliament of Britain against the Americans. Continued from our last.”
  83. NUMBER LXXXII August 10, 1776- “Reflections on the present conspiracy of the King and Parliament of Britain against the Americans. Concluded from our last” and “Lord Camden’s Speech in the House of Lords, in 1765, on the declaratory Bill of the sovereinty of Great Britain over her Colonies.”
  84. NUMBER LXXXIII August 17, 1776 - “I Cannot help thinking it an astonishing event in the history of human affairs.”
  85. NUMBER LXXXIV August 24, 1776 - “The following is the Declaration of INDEPENDENCE of the BRAVE, FREE, and VIRTUOUS Americans, against the most dastardly, slavish, and vicious TYRANT, that ever disgraced a Nation” and “Extract of a LETTER.”
  86. NUMBER LXXXV August 30, 1776 - “From the LONDON GA ZETTE of August 24” and “REMARKS.”
  87. NUMBER LXXXVI September 8, 1776 - Robert Molesworth, “The PRINCIPLES of a REAL WHIG” (Part 1).
  88. NUMBER LXXXVII September 14, 1776 - Robert Molesworth, “The PRINCIPLES of a REAL WHIG” (Part 2).
  89. NUMBER LXXXVIII September 21, 1776 - Robert Molesworth, “The PRINCIPLES of a REAL WHIG” (Part 3); and “CIRCULAR LETTER FROM THE LONDON ASSOCIATION.”
  90. NUMBER LXXXIX September 28, 1776 - “From the Virginia Gazette, and other American papers, dated August 3d, 1776.”
  91. NUMBER XC October 6, 1776 - “An EXTRACT from the Freeholder’s Political Catechism, written by the late Earl of Bath, containing a short but judicious Summary of the Duty, as well as Rights, of every English Freeholder” (Part 1).
  92. NUMBER XCI October 12, 1776 - “An EXTRACT from the Freeholder’s Political Catechism, written by the late Earl of Bath, containing a short but judicious Summary of the Duty, as well as Rights, of every English Freeholder” (Part 2) and “An ADDRESS from the AUTHORS to the PUBLIC.”

On Religion Considered in Its Source, Its Forms, and Its Developments (Benjamin Constant)

Constant.OnReligionConstant worked on this study of humanity’s religious forms and development throughout his life, eventually publishing five volumes between 1824 and 1831. His aims were to relate religious forms to their historical contexts and civilizational developments, to show partisans of the new post-revolutionary order that the religious impulse was natural to the human heart, and to show religious reactionaries that history had left them behind and that the natural state of the religious sentiment was an unfettered “spirituality” left free to find new forms of expression.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books January 4, 2018

Selections from Three Works (Francisco Suárez)

SuarezThreeWorksThe bulk of the selections in this volume are from A Treatise on Laws and God the Lawgiver (1612), “one of the major works of scholastic moral and legal theory,” writes volume editor Thomas Pink. In the Treatise, working within the framework originally elaborated by Thomas Aquinas, Suárez presented a systematic account of human moral activity in all its dimensions, synthesizing the entire scholastic heritage of thinking on this topic and identifying the key issues of debate and the key authors who had formulated the different positions most incisively. Then he went beyond this heritage of authorities to present a new account of human moral action and its relationship to the law.

The second selection is from A Defence of the Catholic and Apostolic Faith (1613), a treatise on the errors of Anglicanism and, in particular, on the errors of King James I in relation to the power of the king in temporal matters and the power of the pope to intervene in the cause of religion. The selections in the final section, A Work on the Three Theological Virtues (1621), are taken from Suárez’s accounts of faith and love, and they concern the conversion of unbelievers and the conditions of a just war.

The translations in this volume were originally published by the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Now republished with a new introduction, revisions to some of the existing notes, and additional notes, these selections are again available in English for those interested in the ethical and metaphysical foundations of political authority and the right to liberty. The texts are of special interest to historians of religious liberty, toleration, and coercion as a classic account of the coercive authority in matters of faith and religious practice of the Catholic church.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books November 7, 2017

Early Economic Thought in Spain, 1177-1740 (Marjorie Grice-Hutchinson)

In the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, clerics gave lectures at the University of Salamanca on such topics as the varying purchasing power of money, the morality of money, and how price is determined. While she was teaching at the London School of Economics, Marjorie Grice-Hutchinson was urged to investigate early records of these lectures. Her study of the manuscript notes of these then-obscure lectures led to her interest in the development of economic ideas in early Spain and their subsequent influence on the rest of Western Europe. The ideas of the Spanish scholastics influenced the work of Pufendorf, Locke, and Hutcheson, and the economic thinking of Condillac, Turgot, and Say. Grice-Hutchinson studied at the London School of Economics, where she received her Ph.D. on the monetary theory of the School of Salamanca under the supervision of F. A. Hayek.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books November 6, 2017

In Pursuit: Of Happiness and Good Government (Charles Murray)

In Pursuit: Of Happiness and Good Government begins by examining James Madison’s statement: “A good government implies two things; first, fidelity to the object of government, which is the happiness of the people; secondly, a knowledge of the means by which that object can best be attained.” Murray exhibits a thoughtful, accessible writing style as he considers such basic, important questions as whether individual efforts or government reform should be responsible for dealing with society’s problems. Drawing from his minimalist-government viewpoint, Murray proposes that government not try to force happiness on the people with federal policies or programs but, rather, that it provide conditions that enable people to pursue happiness on their own.

Murray also proposes that the pursuit of happiness be used as a framework for analyzing the efficacy of public policy, and he comes to the conclusion that Jeffersonian democracy is still the best way to run society, even today’s complex society.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books October 18, 2017

Democracy in America. English Edition. Vol. 2. (Alexis de Tocqueville)

Volume 2 of a two volume English only version of Liberty Fund’s 4 volume bi-lingual critical edition. In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville and his friend Gustave de Beaumont visited the United States. From Tocqueville’s copious notes of what he had seen and heard came the classic text De la Démocratie en Amérique, published in two large volumes, the first in 1835, the second in 1840. The first volume focused primarily on political society; the second, on civil society.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books October 18, 2017

Democracy in America. English Edition. 2 vols. (Alexis de Tocqueville)

A two volume English only version of Liberty Fund’s 4 volume bi-lingual critical edition. In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville and his friend Gustave de Beaumont visited the United States. From Tocqueville’s copious notes of what he had seen and heard came the classic text De la Démocratie en Amérique, published in two large volumes, the first in 1835, the second in 1840. The first volume focused primarily on political society; the second, on civil society.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books October 18, 2017

Democracy in America. English Edition. Vol. 1 (Alexis de Tocqueville)

Volume 1 of a two volume English only version of Liberty Fund’s 4 volume bi-lingual critical edition. In 1831, Alexis de Tocqueville and his friend Gustave de Beaumont visited the United States. From Tocqueville’s copious notes of what he had seen and heard came the classic text De la Démocratie en Amérique, published in two large volumes, the first in 1835, the second in 1840. The first volume focused primarily on political society; the second, on civil society.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books October 18, 2017

Tocqueville’s Voyages: The Evolution of His Ideas and Their Journey Beyond His Time (Christine Dunn Henderson)

HendersonVoyagesTocqueville’s Voyages is a collection of newly written essays by some of the most well-known Tocquevillian scholars today. The essays in the first part of the volume explore the development of Tocqueville’s thought, his intellectual voyage, during his trip to America and while writing Democracy in America. The second part of the book focuses on the dissemination of Tocqueville’s ideas beyond the Franco-American context of 1835–1840 in places such as Argentina, Japan, and Eastern Europe.

OLL | Liberty Fund Books September 12, 2017

Encyclopedic Liberty: Political Articles in the Dictionary of Diderot and D’Alembert (Denis Diderot)

d'Alembert and DiderotThis anthology is the first endeavor to bring together the most significant political writing from the entire twenty-million-word compendium known as The Encyclopedia. It includes eighty-one of the most original, controversial and representative articles on political ideas, practices, and institutions, many translated into English for the first time. The articles cover such topics as the foundations of political order, the relationship between natural and civil liberty, the different types of constitutional regimes, the role of the state in economic and religious affairs, and the boundaries between manners, morals, and laws.

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